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What is GIS?

A framework to organise, communicate and understand the science of our world

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Definition of GIS

A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data. Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes. ​With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations. By integrating spatial data with mapping technology, GIS empowers users to make smarter and informed decisions.

What is the History of GIS?

While the concept of spatial representation stretches back to early civilizations with maps and drawings, the modern era of GIS began in the 1960s with the rise of computers. Pioneering projects like Canada's CGIS laid the groundwork for capturing, storing, analysing, and visualising geographic data. Early GIS was expensive and complex, but advancements in the 1990s with user-friendly software, processing power, and remote sensing data integration led to wider adoption. Today, GIS is a cornerstone for numerous fields, and the future holds promise for even more sophisticated analysis, real-time data integration, and powerful decision-making tools through advancements in AI and machine learning.

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How is GIS used?

Hundreds of thousands of organizations in virtually every field are using GIS to make maps that communicate, perform analysis, share information, and solve complex problems around the world. This is changing the way the world works.

How GIS Works


GIS technology applies geographic science with tools for understanding and collaboration. It helps people reach a common goal: to gain actionable intelligence from all types of data.

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Applications of GIS


Esri India recognizes the transformative power of Geographic Information System (GIS) across diverse industries. From urban planning and environmental management to transportation and public health, GIS empowers professionals with a comprehensive view of their spatial data.
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